• Polio: Spread through faecal-oral route, no cure, mainly affects children below 5 years, WHO declares India as polio free.
• Measles: It’s a very contagious disease caused by a virus. It spreads through the air when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
• Hepatitis B: It is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. The virus is transmitted through contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person. It has vaccines.
Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal and Thailand became the first four countries in the WHO‘s South-east Asia region to have successfully controlled hepatitis B.
The virus is most commonly transmitted from mother to child during birth and delivery, as well as through
contact with blood or other body fluids.
• Japanese Encephalitis: It is a flavivirus related to dengue, yellow and west nile viruses. Spread through mosquitoes (Culex).
• Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus. This disease is often mild with half of people not realizing that they are infected. A rash may start around two weeks after exposure and last for three days.
• Hepatitis C: Inflammation of liver, Spread through infected blood, sexual activity and mother to child. Breast feeding does not transmit this. No “vaccine” for this.
• Influenza: Caused by RNA viruses.
• Spanish Flu: It was caused by an H1N1 virus with genes of avian origin. Although there is not universal consensus regarding where the virus originated, it spread worldwide during 1918-1919.
• SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory syndrome): Zoonotic diseases, no vaccine, no case since 2004, spread through air and physical contact.
• Swine Flu: H1N1 and H3N2, infects respiratory tract of pigs, spread through air and physical contact.
• Avian Influenza: H7N9 virus (Influenza A virus) , Recently, India was again declared free of H5N1 virus, which causes ‘avian influenza‘ or ‘Bird flu‘ (earlier declaration in 2017).
H9N2 is a subtype of the influenza A virus, which causes human influenza as well as bird flu.
According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), only ‘influenza A and B viruses‘ are
known to cause “epidemics‟
1. The ‘C type‘ virus usually causes mild respiratory illness.
2. The ‘D type‘ virus typically affects cattle and is not known to infect humans.
• Chikungunya: Similar symptoms like dengue and zika. No cure.
• Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic fever: Caused by Nairovirus, transmitted through ticks and livestock animals. In humans, transmitted through blood and body fluids.
• Kyasanur Forest Disease: Identified in Shivamogga, Karnataka. Zoonotic (Monkey, Rodents are hosts) disease. Ticks are the vectors
• West Nile Virus: Spread through Culex mosquitoes, no vaccine available, cannot spread through physical contact.
• Zika Virus: Spread through Aedes mosquito, no vaccine, can be passed from mother to child.
• Nipah: Is a zoonotic virus which resides in Fruit bats. Can be transmitted from animal to humans, human to human and through contaminated food. No vaccine available.
• Human Pappilloma: Causes warts, is a most common sexually transmitted infection.
• Hantaviruses: Carried by rodents
• Coronavirus: Causes upper respiratory tract illness. Example, SARS and MERS.
• Noro: In the news for the outbreak during winter Olympics in South Korea. Similar symptoms like Diarrhoea.
• Usutu: Belongs to Flavivirus. African origin. Tick is the vector, affects birds, humans can also be affected.
• Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease in people and nonhuman primates. The viruses that cause EVD are located mainly in sub-Saharan Africa. People can get EVD through direct contact with an infected animal (bat or nonhuman primate) or a sick or dead person infected with Ebola virus